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Ball Grid Array or BGA is a surface-mount package (with no leads) utilizing an array of metal spheres (solder balls) for electrical interconnection. BGA solder balls are attached to a laminated substrate at the bottom of the package. The die of the BGA is connected to the substrate by wire bonding or flip-chip technology. The BGA substrate has internal conductive traces that route and connect the die-to-substrate bonds to the substrate-to-ball array bonds.
BGA is soldered on to the Printed Circuit Board using a reflow oven. As the solder balls melts in the reflow oven, the surface tension of the molten solder ball keeps the package aligned in its proper location on the circuit board, until the solder cools and solidifies. Proper and controlled soldering process and temperature is essential for good solder joints and to prevent solder balls from shorting with each other.
Advantages of Ball Grid Array (BGA) Packaging
Disadvantages of BGA
Like all other electronic packages, BGA too, have some drawbacks. Following are some of the disadvantages of BGA:
Plastic Ball Grid Array (PBGA)
Plastic Ball Grid Array (PBGA) is a type of BGA with a plastic-molded or glob-top body. Size of PBGA packages range from 7 to 50 mm and has ball pitches of 1.00, 1.27, and 1.50 mm. PBGA pin counts range from 16 to 2401 pins. PBGA substrates are laminated and are made of glass-reinforced organic material with excellent thermal properties. Etched copper foils form the conductive traces within the substrate.
Assembly of Plastic Ball Grid Array (PBGA) is normally done by “per substrate strip” where each strip holds several package sites.
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